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CIA - The World Factbook -- Tajikistan
 
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Tajikistan
Flag of Tajikistan
Map of Tajikistan
Introduction Tajikistan
Background:
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union and has now completed its transition from the civil war that plagued the country from 1992 to 1997. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the region. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
Geography Tajikistan
Location:
Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:
arable land: 6.61%
permanent crops: 0.92%
other: 92.47% (2001)
Irrigated land:
7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes and floods
Environment - current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
People Tajikistan
Population:
7,163,506 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.5% (male 1,390,220/female 1,368,268)
15-64 years: 56.7% (male 2,022,764/female 2,040,524)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 150,372/female 191,358) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.73 years
male: 19.45 years
female: 20.02 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.15% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
32.58 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
8.39 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 110.76 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 122.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 98.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.56 years
male: 61.68 years
female: 67.59 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.05 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:
Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Languages:
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.1% (2003 est.)
Government Tajikistan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
republic
Capital:
Dushanbe
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence:
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution:
6 November 1994
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president; Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 June 2003 that, among other things, set a limit of two seven-year terms for the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 February and 13 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2010) and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74%, CPT 13%, Islamic Revival Party 8%, other 5%; seats by party - PDPT 49, CPT 4, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5, vacant 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV]; Islamic Revival Party [Said Abdullo NURI]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
there are three unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party or APT [Hikmatullo NASRIDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
International organization participation:
AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hamrohon ZARIPOV
chancery: 1725 K Street NW, Suite 409, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard E. HOAGLAND
embassy: 10 Pavlova Street, Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; note - the embassy in Dushanbe is not yet fully operational; most business is still handled in Almaty at: 531 Sayfullin Street, Almaty, Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-61, FAX 7-3272-58-79-68
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [992] (372) 21-03-48, 21-03-52, 24-15-60
FAX: [992] (372) 21-03-62, 51-00-28
Flag description:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
Economy Tajikistan
Economy - overview:
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 5% to 6% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 60% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002, including an interest rate of 4%, a 3-year grace period, and a US $49.8 million credit to the Central Bank of Tajikistan.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$7.95 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
10.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23.7%
industry: 24.3%
services: 52% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
3.187 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%, services 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
40% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
60% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 25.2% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34.7 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
22% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $311.2 million
expenditures: $321.5 million, including capital expenditures of $86 million (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate:
8.2% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
15.08 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 1.9%
hydro: 98.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
14.41 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:
3.974 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
4.359 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
250 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA
Oil - imports:
NA
Natural gas - production:
50 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
1.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
$-52 million (2004 est.)
Exports:
$1.13 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners:
Netherlands 41.4%, Turkey 15.3%, Uzbekistan 7.2%, Latvia 7.1%, Switzerland 6.9%, Russia 6.6% (2004)
Imports:
$1.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Russia 20.2%, Uzbekistan 14.2%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Azerbaijan 7.2%, US 6.7%, China 4.8%, Ukraine 4.5% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$145.3 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$888 million (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$60.7 million from US (2001)
Currency (code):
somoni
Currency code:
TJS
Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.9705 (2004), 3.0614 (2003), 2.7641 (2002), 2.3722 (2001), 2.0763 (2000)
note: the new unit of exchange was introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old Tajikistani rubles
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Tajikistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
242,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
47,600 (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
Radios:
1.291 million (1991)
Television broadcast stations:
13 (2001)
Televisions:
820,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.tj
Internet hosts:
69 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
4 (2002)
Internet users:
4,100 (2003)
Transportation Tajikistan
Railways:
total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2004)
Highways:
total: 27,767 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA (2000)
Waterways:
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2003)
Pipelines:
gas 541 km; oil 38 km (2004)
Airports:
55 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 35 (2004 est.)
Military Tajikistan
Military branches:
Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,556,415 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,244,941 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males: 87,846 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$35.4 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3.9% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Tajikistan
Disputes - international:
boundary agreements signed in 2002 cede 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km of Tajikistani lands but neither state has published maps of ceded areas and demarcation has not yet commenced; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Illicit drugs:
major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80 percent of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium)

This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005


 


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